보성콜걸❦24시출장샵◎보성구글 재펜<보성광주 터미널 근처 모텔>↔《보성강서구 마사지》➻보성아산 안마방❖보성청주 마사지╬ 보성용산 마사지☺보성동대구역 여관↔보성지저분한 색스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

포항출장샵
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

보성콜걸⇛24시출장샵┋보성구글 재펜<보성광양 마사지>↪《보성아줌마 마사지》◙보성안마방 정보ス보성마사지 카운터 알바▐보성김천 안마방◦보성남편 마사지➸보성광대뼈 축소 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 홍천부산 해운대 출장 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

보성콜걸✯출장부르는법①보성구글 재펜<보성안마방 인증>✲《보성구로 안마방》♪보성상록수역 안마방❤보성모텔 전화↡보성분당 안마방⇩보성검빛 경마 검색⇞보성송내 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

보성콜걸ヒ출장부르는법╈보성구글 재펜<보성신림동 마사지>☏《보성사당 안마방》❈보성광진구 안마방ニ보성대전 마사지 후기⇁보성안마방 항문☰보성타이페이 마사지➹보성안마방 경찰

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 원주출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

보성콜걸タ출장부르는법╚보성구글 재펜<보성모텔출장마사지샵>⊙《보성근육 마사지》❥보성카톡 출장 만남☋보성마사지 마무리☂보성일본야동 마사지✏보성진주 오피○보성시흥 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 양평이발소 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

보성콜걸✿예약금없는출장샵㊣보성구글 재펜<보성부산 안마방 추천>↔《보성서울대입구 안마방》▷보성v라인 마사지✗보성fc2 일본 마사지◙보성여성전용 마사지♦보성fc2 안마방♬보성오피스 방

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 대구출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

보성콜걸보성평촌 마사지

  • 김천전주 안마방 가격
  • 보성무거동 출장
  • 보성콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    보성콜걸↸출장부르는법☠보성구글 재펜<보성아침에 안마방>╤《보성마사지방》♤보성가산동 안마방◎보성섹슈얼 마사지╣보성춘천 태국 마사지┩보성천호동 마사지♂보성대전 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 홍천안마방 리뷰 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 목포출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노
    동인천마사지 일본어 진주출장샵 청주안마방 vs 오피
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 군산출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    보성콜걸↰24시출장샵[보성구글 재펜<보성남성전용마사지>┵《보성군산 안마방》◘보성남양주 안마방☒보성fc2 마사지•보성소라넷 안마방⇩보성안마방 썰ξ보성봉담 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 구미마닐라 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    보성콜걸╮24시출장샵┇보성구글 재펜<보성상남동 마사지>┌《보성태국 마사지 여행》┯보성동대구 여관♧보성청도 마사지ⓛ보성안마방 도찰✄보성제주 연동 마사지↜보성다낭 마사지 추천

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    여수석계 안마방
    남원마사지 하다가 수원출장안마 청양안마방 아영이 토렌트
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    보성콜걸╬예약↺보성구글 재펜<보성아줌마 안마방>♙《보성조건 출장》▤보성모텔 찌라시╚보성부산 출장╦보성안마방 24시간¤보성전립선 마사지 부작용♥보성퇴폐 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 목포출장샵 .

    보성콜걸♩예약⇤보성구글 재펜<보성마사지 받다가>╮《보성제주시 안마방》➛보성video fc2 마사지┨보성출장업계위❣보성안마방 출장♠보성허리통증 마사지┯보성전기 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 제주출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 경상남도서울역 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    보성콜걸┋예약♂보성구글 재펜<보성안마방 야간>┑《보성만짜이 마사지》♡보성마사지 할인↕보성모텔 여자➳보성공주 안마방▩보성강동구 마사지⇩보성구미 아로마 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    보성콜걸◥24시출장샵▦보성구글 재펜<보성세븐 안마방>✖《보성부산 모텔 아가씨》☱보성신원동 마사지☁보성안마방 오일⇙보성모텔 걸↳보성출장마사wl┮보성만남 카톡

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 영동캄보디아 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 홍성스웨 디시 마사지 란 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    보성콜걸◥예약금없는출장샵♮보성구글 재펜<보성스웨디시 마사지 후기>◎《보성호텔 출장》┎보성정왕역 안마방囍보성태국 마사지 마무리↺보성마사지 남친↓보성안마방 스킬┱보성인천 서구 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, wonderlend.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대전출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 구미출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    보성콜걸£출장부르는법↔보성구글 재펜<보성복부 마사지>◦《보성현풍 마사지》☠보성여관 녀ξ보성정자 안마방ρ보성방콕 변형 마사지↕보성상대보호구역♞보성하노이 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    증평안마방 신고
    전주출장안마 부안서울 출장샵 온라인카지노
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    보성콜걸☃예약금없는출장샵✖보성구글 재펜<보성마사지 추천>㍿《보성마산 모텔 추천》↠보성마산 안마방⇡보성출장업소¤보성봉천 안마방┨보성답십리 안마방↛보성안마방 bj

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.보성콜걸보성일산 마사지★보성안마방 비용✖《보성마사지 앱》보성흉쇄유돌근 마사지ス보성마사지 섹스╪보성티켓 썰☞보성출장 카톡╓카지노사이트출장부르는법보성용암동 모텔ニ보성지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지☀〖보성베트남 안마방〗보성종아리 마사지♖보성안마방 오랄✖보성ace anma⇖보성안마방 시스템ヘ보성콜걸공주대전 모텔 추천보성수원 마사지★보성춘천 모텔 가격☀﹛보성다낭 마사지 가격﹜보성텀블러 마사지▫보성역삼역 안마방ユ보성오피스텔 아가씨“보성문산 안마방╤보성분당 마사지π보성신림 아로마 마사지§(보성호이안 마사지)보성구미 아로마 마사지⇟보성커플 마사지 후기↤보성박중현 안마방◐보성상봉 안마방▦보성제기동 안마방◥보성제주시청 마사지☜(보성포항 마사지 후기)보성부산 서면 출장◑보성출장샵♚보성구디 안마방→보성안마방 지명녀╦보성오피걸⇉보성원주 안마방➴「보성장유 안마방」보성구미 모텔 추천┼보성육덕 마사지♬보성출장⇃보성탑 클래스♐예약거창선릉역 안마방24시출장샵보성안마방 수위┶보성출장 후기ロ《보성동네 마사지》보성민락동 마사지↘보성필승 안마방☈보성상봉역 안마방⇗보성슈얼 마사지▷보성콜걸보성콜걸서울출장안마보성대전복합터미널 마사지보성출장보성출장마사지보성안마방 직원보성콜걸보성마사지 ㅁㅎㅎ┘보성노모 마사지↺〔보성출장가격〕보성척추 마사지0보성안산 조건 만남➼보성마사지 야.동►보성구의 안마방コ옥천콜걸만남

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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